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I. Eye prolapse

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Chihuahua

I. Prolapse of the eye

The normal eye is set in the eye socket, and the main structure of the eye socket is bone, which is intended to protect the eye. However, in some cases, the eye can run out of the sockets and cause serious damage to the eye.

[1. Etiology]

The cause of this disorder is genetic. Some dogs with shallow eye sockets e.g., Pekingese and Shih Tzus often have prolapsed eyes due to overexcitement. In addition, head trauma, dog bites, and bone fractures around the eye sockets can also lead to prolapsed eyes for a variety of reasons.

[2. Symptoms]

The normal eye is set in the eye socket, and the main structure of the eye socket is bone, which is intended to protect the eye. However, in some cases, the eye can run out of the sockets and cause serious damage to the eye.

[3. Treatment method]

The eye is an organ that requires moisture at all times. If this happens, in addition to getting to the hospital immediately, we should have the following principles in place if we cannot get to the hospital immediately.

1 Fully moisten and clean: first moisten and clean the eye with clean water boiling water, mineral water or saline contact lens washing solution, keeping the eye moist at all times.

2 Strictly prohibit the dog from scratching the eye: because when the eye is prolapsed, the dog itself is uncomfortable and the reflex action is to play with the prolapsed eye with its foot, causing secondary injury.

3 Pressure on the eye is strictly prohibited. When the eye prolapses, it is often accompanied by corneal ulceration or perforation. If pressure is applied, it often results in fluid leakage from the eye, causing irreversible damage to the eye.

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In some cases, vision can be severely affected.

1 If the prolapse is prolonged, more than 2 hours, the eye is often blinded due to obstruction of blood circulation to the eye.

2 Secondary injury, resulting in rupture of the eye and outflow of anterior chamber fluid.

3 Abnormalities in the crystal and retinal structures.

4 When the pupillary reflex is absent, it is the result of severe nerve damage.

[Ark Review]

After a brief physiological evaluation, Cash’s physiological condition was stable, that is, a small amount of painkillers and sedatives were requested, then the eye was carefully cleaned and disinfected, an immediate head x-ray was performed to determine the fracture of the eye socket, Cash, and everything was normal, entered the operating room, temporarily sutured the eyelid for fear of harming the ocular structures, carefully examined using ultrasound, Cash’s crystal and retinal structures were normal, and the owner was informed that he needed to rest for about 14 days to fully recover from the order.

The dog’s eyes are also the windows to the dog’s soul. We can also see happiness, sadness, depression, and other emotions in those lovely eyes. It is just as important to protect your dog’s eyes as it is to protect your human eyes. The eyes are organs that need moisture at all times. If this happens, in addition to taking it to the doctor immediately, the owner should be prepared quickly before seeking medical attention.

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II. Dry eye disease

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Chihuahua

II. Dry eye

Dry eye disease in dogs, also known as keratoconjunctivitis in dogs, has been shown to occur when there is a vitamin A deficiency. The essence of this is a thickening of the cornea that gradually forms a fog. Usually, dry eye does not blind the eye; however, in some cases, the cornea may ulcerate or even perforate, eventually leading to retinal degeneration and blindness.

[1. Etiology]

Dry keratoconjunctivitis dry eye disease is a change in the eye caused by a lack of tear production. If you want to understand dry eye disease, you must understand the normal relationship between corneal health and tears. The cornea is transparent and the outermost structure of the eye needs oxygen and nutrients, just like any other tissue. But it is not provided through the bloodstream, but through the three layers of the tear film.

The outermost layer is the oil layer, produced by the glands with the eyelids. The middle layer is the aqueous layer, produced by the upper eyelid lacrimal gland and the third eyelid gland. The occurrence of dry eye disease often affects the function of the glands.

The innermost layer is the mucus layer produced by the cupped cells of the conjunctiva. Dry eye disease is a lack of tear film, leading to corneal dryness. When the cornea is dry, the lack of oxygen and nutrients quickly leads to structural damage. It can lead to corneal hyperpigmentation, scarring, ulceration, and vascularization.

[2. Symptoms]

Routinely treated dry eye disease has many symptoms, including mildly reduced tear production, temporary dry eye disease that temporarily stops tear production, complete dry eye disease that completely lacks tear production, and temporary dry eye disease that results in reduced tear production.

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There are many aspects to consider in treating dry eye disease. The initial consideration is to reduce the transitional growth of bacteria, which is common in dry eye disease. Because there are often many purulent mucus secretions in dry eye cases, these secretions are more conducive to bacterial growth. Topical anti-inflammatory medications are recommended, but corneal ulcers should not be used topically. The use of anti-inflammatory medications reduces inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea and eliminates scarring. Corticosteroids should not be used in cases of ulcers; they will decrease the rate of healing and accelerate the ulcerative process.

Artificial tears are often used to replenish tears, and there are many products available. In addition, artificial tears are often used at night because medication cannot be administered at night.

Currently, newer medications for dry eye disease include cyclosporine, an immunosuppressive component. In many cases, these drugs can significantly increase the amount of tears in the eyes.

[Ark Review]

There are many causes associated with dry eye disease. These include hypothyroidism, such as infections due to distemper, and abnormal lacrimal gland function due to immune disorders. The cause is still uncertain in many cases, but treatment is still possible. Other common causes include drug toxicity, as these drugs are used to treat other diseases Dry eye disease can be treated by changing to other drugs. If the medication cannot be changed, the dry eye should also be treated or controlled at the same time.

As long as the medication is adhered to in most cases, the prognosis is good. If regular use of eye medication is not possible, surgery, such as salivary gland transplantation, may be considered. Barbie Tang Animal Hospital was the first animal hospital in China to treat the disease with surgery. Usually, as long as the owner understands and adheres to the medication, the animal’s vision is not too affected.

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III. Cataracts

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Chihuahua

III. Cataracts

[1. Etiology]

There are many reasons why dogs develop cataracts, which is a predisposing factor. As far as I know, both the Peking Bar and the Pug are dogs that are prone to cataracts. Eye trauma, long-term ocular inflammation, aging, or other metabolism-related diseases can all lead to cataracts. Because there are many possible causes of cataracts in dogs, cataracts may be one of the more serious ocular diseases in dogs.

In summary, the causes of protein degeneration are supracrystalline protein degeneration, genetics, nutritional imbalance, radiation, hyperglycemia, hypocalcemia, toxicity, and abnormal embryonic development. Traditionally, cataracts are divided into three periods: immature damage to one part of the crystal, mature degeneration and clouding of the entire crystal, and overripe atrophy of the crystal, due to water reabsorption. The onset of disease is one step at a time.

[2. Symptoms]

Cataracts are a disease of the lens of the dog’s eye, so the symptoms are focused on the eye as well. In fact, in the early stages of cataracts in dogs, there will be no obvious symptoms and you will not notice that the dog has poor vision as many dogs do, haha, but as the disease progresses, you will notice that the dog’s eyes are noticeably less bright, become cloudy, and sometimes have visible white spots, at which point the dog’s vision decreases significantly, for example, before you threw a toy, he could catch up and find it quickly, but now it becomes difficult In short, you will begin to suspect that there is something wrong with the dog’s eyes.

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The treatment of cataracts in dogs is really the same as in humans, and there are only two types: medication and surgery. No drug has been shown to be effective for cataracts to dissolve the clouding of the crystalloids and to disperse?S for reasons that agents can increase the range of vision in initial cataracts Y except for transmission and aging is not preventable.

Pharmacologic treatment is primarily aimed at the early stages of cataracts in dogs. Cataract suspension and muscovite eye medications can inhibit the development of cataracts in dogs, but they do not address the cloudy areas of the dog’s eye, only provide inhibition. Cataract surgery in dogs is usually a more effective treatment.

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Chihuahua

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Although cataract surgery should be a relatively well-established surgical procedure for dogs, some dogs are still not suitable for dog-specific conditions.

1 Very sensitive and aggressive dogs: cataract surgery in dogs is performed under general anesthesia. After anesthesia, it is more dangerous if the owner cannot control the dog well. A particularly annoying dog is very aggressive with its owner and cannot be quieted down, which can waste all the efforts made before surgery.

2 Dogs in poor physical condition: Dogs in poor physical condition such as weakness, other diseases, and poor heart and lung function should not be operated on. Listen to your doctor and tell him or her about the dog’s medical history so that he or she can make the right decision.

3 The recovery period for cataract surgery in dogs is relatively long, taking about one to two months. During the recovery period, it is important to supervise the dog’s movements, avoid exercise as much as possible, and also keep it clean, as well as requiring the owner to take care of the sick dog without fail, so if the owner cannot accompany the dog during the recovery period, it is important to think twice about whether or not to decide to give the dog cataract surgery.

[Ark Review]

Cataract is a disease that occurs in the lens of the dog’s eye. It is a serious disease among the common diseases of the dog’s eye because it causes blindness in the dog’s eye. Cataracts can have many causes, including congenital causes, older causes, or after trauma. At the beginning of a cataract, the dog has no apparent poor vision. As the transparency of the lens decreases,

slowly, vision becomes compromised. If your dog is getting older, it is usually important to keep an eye on your dog’s eyes. If you notice that it is not as bright or clear as it used to be, you should have that awareness. The dog may have cataracts.

Most are hereditary. Lesser schnauzers, lesser poodles, and American cocker spaniels frequently cause bilateral lesions and blindness, and other diseases, such as golden retrievers, Siberian huskies, and Bostonians, are common. Only sporadic cases have been reported in Persian and Himalayan cats, reported. In addition, there is no specific age group for the onset of the disease; in general, the older the dog, the more likely it is to develop, but there are many cases that develop at a few months of age. However, most eye diseases in dogs present with red eyes, tears, increased discharge, and inability to open the eyes. Whatever happens, we should be aware of it. If we don’t see well after using eye drops or eye ointment, we must see a doctor as soon as possible.

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Chihuahua

IV. Glaucoma

[1. Etiology]

Glaucoma is an increase in eye pressure. This elevated pressure can quickly cause pain and loss of vision in animals. To better understand the mechanisms of glaucoma, it is important to first understand how intraocular pressure is generated. The fluid in the eye, also known as atrial fluid, is produced from the ciliary body behind the iris. This fluid drains through the pupil to the cornea and iris angle, where an important tissue called the trabecular meshwork is located in this corner. The production and elimination of atrial fluid remains essentially constant, resulting in a relatively stable intraocular pressure. Normal intraocular pressure is 10-20 mmHg. Glaucoma is a disease in which blockage of atrial aqueous drainage causes an increase in IOP.

[2. Symptoms]

1, The surface of the eye becomes insensitive: because the nerve is compressed and damaged.

2 Ocular pain:Nerve compression is caused by elevated eye pressure.

3 Cloudiness of the ocular surface:corneal layer edema.

The reflection of light is lost due to optic nerve necrosis.

5 Protrusion of the eyeball:Chronic glaucoma can be deformed by fluid accumulation in the anterior chamber.

6 White of the eye is congested:i.e., the scleral area is red and swollen.

7 Pupil dilation:The muscles and nerves that control the size of the pupil are compressed.

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1 After we diagnose glaucoma, we usually treat it with strong, favorable medications. This treatment may initially require hospitalization. During hospitalization, we will give oral or infusion medications to alter the osmolarity and lower the intraocular pressure for the shortest possible time. Once we have controlled the IOP, we will continue with medications that will stabilize the IOP over time. We usually use medications that increase atrial fluid discharge, such as woolly goitrin, DEMECARIUM and latanoprost. We also use drugs that affect atrial fluid production, such as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and thimerosal.

2 Another way to lower IOP is to inject an antimicrobial into the back of the eye, which is toxic to the ciliary body and reduces the production of water in the room. We only use this method on blinded animals because it is also toxic to the retina. The effect of this operation lasts for a very short time. Another operation can remove the eye. This method can make the animal feel comfortable very quickly.

3 Emergency treatment medications include highly permeable drugs such as intravenous mannitol or oral glycerol. We often use mannitol in the clinic because of its low side effects. Highly permeable drugs are important in the treatment of acute glaucoma. In addition, vinpocetine or dichlorosulfonamide are oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Most oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors work after 2-3 hours. IOP is measured hourly until IOP returns to normal. If necessary, mannitol may be repeated after 4-6 hours. Acemethazine may be given every 8-12 hours. Most people will eventually be referred to an ophthalmologist.

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IV. Glaucoma

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Chihuahua

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1 Glaucoma requires lifelong medication, whether oral or topical. Lifetime medication rarely has negative effects, with a 5% probability of occurrence. But the complications go beyond this and include pink tissue conjunctiva; conjunctival ulceration superficial to deep; scarring of the cornea, corneal vascularization, corneal mineral deposition; protrusion of the eye, secondary corneal ulceration; inflammation within the eye uveitis, secondary infection or ulceration; excessive intraocular pressure, secondary uveitis; retinal detachment or degeneration, secondary uveitis or infection; eye or ocular pain, secondary to uveitis, glaucoma, or infection; itching of the eyelids; intraocular hemorrhage, secondary to uveitis or infection, tear spillage, and/or crystal detachment, secondary to uveitis, glaucoma, or infection.

2 Some complications may eventually lead to blindness in the animal. Elevated intraocular pressure exceeds 25-3000 mmHg Normal intraocular pressure in dogs and cats ranges from about 15-30 mmHg. Elevated intraocular pressure often leads to optic nerve degeneration and blindness. Some oral medications for glaucoma may cause abnormal behavior, abnormal consumption diarrhea or vomiting, increased or decreased appetite, asthma, decreased total white blood cell count, and many biochemical markers liver, kidney, potassium. In some cases, it is not possible that medication to control IOP is not possible, but also in combination with surgical treatment to control IOP. Ciliary cryopreservation is a method of freezing that reduces the production of ciliary atrial fluid. The degree of freezing depends on the intraocular pressure. Laser ciliary coagulation is a similar treatment, but requires a laser.

3 If the eye is permanently blind with pain, a prosthetic eye implant is the only way to control eye pressure and relieve pain. This method will not cause the animal pain anymore. The surgery simply removes the contents of the eye and replaces it with an artificial eye; the shell of the eye remains and the animal can still blink and rotate, just like the other eye.

[Ark Review]

A disease caused by high eye pressure pressure inside the eye to keep it spherical when a dog has glaucoma. Glaucoma is common in certain polar animals such as huskies. Others, such as bajid, pine, poodle, maltese, and shih tzu, have an average onset of 4-9 years. Secondary glaucoma is common in Boston, Barleytown, and West Highland White Terrier, with an average distribution of onset time of 2-6 years. Secondary causes are mostly ophthalmia, uveitis, lens detachment, and hemorrhage. If glaucoma is left untreated, it may lead to blindness in dogs, and parents should pay special attention to it.

The prognosis for animals with glaucoma depends not only on regular, appropriate medication and periodic review, but also on early diagnosis. By the time the first eye becomes ill, many animal owners take their animals to the hospital too late. In such cases, all we can do is try to maintain vision in the other good eye while keeping the patient’s eye comfortable.

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