I. Introduction

This disease is most often associated with changes in environmental factors such as too much cold and too much heat. Some bacteria that normally live in the trachea of healthy dogs especially puppies can exist for a long time without developing the disease, but in the occurrence of the following conditions, such as the owner’s improper bathing causing the animal to get cold, or sudden shutdown after living in air conditioning for a long time, or sudden changes in weather such as cold and hot, these normal bacteria can become pathogenic due to the change in conditions.

[Editor’s comment]

Because the causes of this disease are complex, many viral diseases in dogs, in addition to certain conditionally pathogenic bacteria, can induce this disease, such as canine distemper, adenovirus disease, and parainfluenza. Therefore, timely and effective vaccination is essential to prevent the disease, while keeping the environmental temperature constant and reducing the chance of exposure to cold to reduce the incidence of conditionally pathogenic bacteria. At the beginning of the disease, dogs show symptoms of dry cough, coughing followed by occasional vomiting or gagging, but the spirit and appetite are normal, and there is usually no fever or signs of illness such as nasal discharge. If uncontrolled, after a few days, its symptoms will develop into a painful cough, elevated body temperature, loss of appetite, purulent nasal discharge, shortness of breath, and panting, i.e., symptoms of pneumonia!

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