I. Four ways to tell when a bitch is in heat


Bichon Frise


One, four ways to determine if a bitch is in heat

Estration identification refers to the identification of a bitch’s estrus by various methods. It is used to determine whether a bitch is in heat so that problems can be identified and dealt with in a timely manner; it is used to determine the stage of heat in a bitch so that the appropriate time for breeding can be determined, thereby increasing the conception rate and litter size

When bitches are in estrus, they have both external characteristics and internal changes. Therefore, in estrus identification, we should not only pay attention to observe the external expression, but also grasp the essential changes, and make a comprehensive analysis in relation to multiple factors to obtain an accurate judgment. The main methods commonly used for estrus identification are: external observation method, test method, vaginal examination method, electrical measurement method, etc.

1. External observation method

Determine the stage of estrus in a bitch by observing her external characteristics, behavioral manifestations, and vaginal discharge. In the first few weeks of estrus, bitches can show signs such as changes in appetite and appearance, a willingness to approach males, and a natural distaste for being with other bitches. During the early days of estrus, most bitches become lethargic and indifferent, and virgin bitches are occasionally seen refusing to eat or even twitching. The early stage of estrus is characterized by swelling of the external genital organs and discharge of blood-like discharge from the pubic gates for 2-4 days. When the discharge increases, the clitoris and vestibule become large and swollen. The female’s temperament becomes restless and excited, her water intake increases, and she urinates frequently, with the aim of attracting males while attracting them, but refusing to mate.

From the early stages of estrus, most bitches enter estrus by accepting male mating at around 9-11 days. The discharge then decreases dramatically and changes color from red to yellowish or pale yellow. When the tail root is touched, the tail is cocked, off to the side, standing still and accepting mating. Some bitches tend to prefer males. After estrus, the vulva gradually contracts and recovers, a small amount of dark brown discharge is occasionally seen, and the bitch becomes quiet, tame, and intelligent.

2. Test of affection method

A method of identifying the stage of estrus by the female’s willingness to accept mating with a male dog. In general, a female dog in estrus will show willingness to accept mating immediately upon seeing a male dog, flirt, tail tilted to one side, deliberately flowing vulva, and showing rhythmic contractions, standing still, etc.

III. Vaginal examination method

The stage of estrus in the bitch was determined by analyzing the cellular tissue of a vaginal smear. In early estrus, the vaginal smear contains a large number of keratinized epithelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and debris. The stage of estrus contains keratinized epithelial cells, more erythrocytes, post-ovulatory leukocytes are absent, leukocytes occupy the vaginal wall and epithelial cells degenerate. Late estrus contained a large number of leukocytes, non-keratinized epithelial cells and a few keratinized epithelial cells.

Epithelial cells are non-keratinized but become keratinized in the early stages of estrus.

4. Electrical measurement method

That is, the resistance of the bitch’s vaginal mucus is measured with a resistance meter to determine the optimal time of insemination. The resistance varies too much during the estrous cycle to determine the optimal time for breeding. Prior to this, the last day before estrus turned out to be 495-1216 ohms. Different variations were also found during estrus, especially at the beginning of the estrus period, when resistance decreased in some bitches and in some bitches, but locally in all bitches during the later part of the estrus period.


II. Three stages of estrus in female dogs




II. Three stages of estrus in female dogs

The female dog will come into estrus when she is sexually mature, at which time she will show signs of stirring and loss of appetite, the most obvious feature being bleeding from the vulva. However, the amount of bleeding varies from breed to breed. Some dogs do not bleed at all and go into estrus unknowingly, this is mostly the case with puppies. Some dogs bleed less and the dog will lick it off, making it difficult to distinguish and owners should watch carefully.

The female dog’s estrus period can be divided into three stages, and the period requiring careful owner care lasts about a month:>

1. Early stage of estrus: The early stage of estrus is the period from the beginning of bleeding to mating, usually 7-10 days. During this period, the eggs are close to maturity and the secretion of oocyte hormones increases In addition, it is manifested by the redness and swelling of the vulva and the flow of bloody mucus from the vagina. However, at this time, females are not allowed to mate.

2. The estrus period:The estrus usually lasts about a week, the vulva continues to swell and soften, the vagina secretes crimson mucus, the color gradually fades, and the bleeding decreases or stops. If the rump is touched artificially, the bitch will deflect her tail to the left to the right. At this point, the bitch allows the male dog to mate. Two to eight days after entering estrus, the bitch begins to ovulate and is easily mated.

3. Late estrus:In late estrus, the external symptoms of the bitch disappear, the labia gradually return to normal, the dog is sexually quiet, vaginal mucus production decreases, and bleeding stops usually lasts about 2 months . If the bitch is pregnant, she will be pregnant.

In addition, the period between late estrus and the next estrus is called the estrus rest period. During this period, the female genitalia go dormant and usually last for about 3 months.


III. Four manifestations of abnormal estrus in female dogs




III. Four manifestations of abnormal estrus in female dogs

1. Cryptogenic estrus

Cryptogenic estrus is a female dog with reproductive capacity that is not in estrus or is not obvious. The signs of estrus are weak, the bitch’s vulva is not red or swollen, her appetite is slightly reduced but not prominent, and her barking restlessness is not obvious. This condition is often easily overlooked if not carefully observed. In this type of bitch in estrus, the level of these two hormones in the blood is too low due to insufficient follicle growth stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and too little estrogen secreted by the follicular wall. The bitch is too old, or too fat and lean, and malnutrition often results in a hidden mood phenomenon with less follicle stimulating hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary and less estrogen secreted by the follicular wall.

2. Pseudoestrus

Pseudoestrus is a false estrus in which the bitch shows signs of estrus, but in reality there are no follicles developing in the ovaries. Pseudoestrus in pregnant bitches is mainly caused by the disruption of reproductive hormones in the bitch’s endocrine system. When a bitch is in heat and pregnant, the corpus luteum of pregnancy and the placenta can secrete progesterone. At the same time, the placenta can secrete estrogen. Progesterone has a protective effect on the fetus, and estrogen has a stimulating effect on estrus. Normally, progesterone and estrogen are in relative balance. However, when the two hormones are out of balance, i.e. progesterone hormone secretion decreases and estrogen secretion is excessive, it can lead to an increase in estrogen in the bitch’s blood, making individual bitches go into estrus during pregnancy, which is also an abnormal estrus.


False estrus in bitches without follicular development is mainly due to the fact that although individual young bitches are sexually mature, ovarian function is not yet fully developed. In this case, although in heat, there are often no mature follicles to discharge. Or some bitches suffer from endometritis, and under the stimulation of endometrial secretions, pseudo-estrus without follicle development may also occur.


3. Persistent estrus

Persistent estrus is a prolonged period of estrus in the bitch that greatly exceeds the normal estrus period. This is mainly due to ovarian cysts in the bitch or the failure of the bitch’s follicles to develop at the same time.

Ovarian cysts are primarily follicular cysts. At this time, the ovaries of the bitch in heat have mature follicles that grow larger but do not rupture, but the follicular walls continue to secrete estrogen. Under the action of estrogen, the bitch’s estrus time will be prolonged. At this time, if the luteal secretion in the bitch in heat is too low, the bitch’s estrus performance is very strong; conversely, if the luteal secretion in the body is too high, the bitch’s estrus performance will be low.

Two follicles do not develop at the same time, mainly when a bitch in heat has follicles developing in one ovary, but the development stops after a few days. On the other hand, there are follicles developing in the ovaries, thus prolonging estrogen production and prolonging estrus in the bitch.


IV. Special care for bitches in estrus

Pet dog fat causes and coping strategies

title=”Pet dog fat causes and coping strategies”



IV. Special care for bitches in estrus

The dog’s physiological functions and behavior undergo some changes during estrus. Owners should do the following:>

1. Bitches in heat may be less restful and appear a bit impatient, disoriented, and unwilling to eat. At this time, in addition to careful traction when you go out, you must prepare nutritious, palatable, and easily digestible food. As the possibility of constipation increases during the rut, some vegetables and coarse grains should be added appropriately, do not feed cold, sour or spicy food, drinking water should be provided with warm water, and a little honey should be added to the water appropriately. After a lot of exercise, 1 spoon of glucose powder can be added to the water.

2. The most characteristic feature of a bitch in estrus is the discharge of blood and mucus from the vulva. Keep the vulva clean. Clean the vulva daily with clean warm water, basin and cloth, not dirty water, as this can cause infection of the reproductive organs. The pads the dog touches when in heat should be soft and clean and disinfected; do not use dirty cloths, waste paper or unsterilized pads. Dogs should wash and change the items they touch, and preferably dry them in the sun. Pay attention to keeping warm and do not get cold. Try not to bathe during the rut, and don’t let it lie on the cold ground for a long time.

III. Top Five Considerations

① Bitches that are five years old or older and have never bred before are best not to have a chance of getting pregnant. Just like people, the older they are, the lower the chances of pregnancy and the higher the risk.

② Fidgeting, emotional instability, drinking more water, urinating everywhere, leaving a smell.

③Vaginal bleeding, which some people call menstruation, is for pregnant bitches. The dog’s menstruation is about 7 to 10 days after estrus, and there are individual differences in the amount of bleeding, some puppies even snub.

④ Males and females have other bitches that have periodic periods of estrus until they become old. There is usually a slight amount of blood in estrus. If the amount is large, it may be endometritis or uterine pus, which can be fatal in severe cases. We should pay more attention to it. However, male dogs do not have a fixed period of estrus. Many people think that male dogs howl at night from a distance and think it is time to come into heat, but in fact it is because they smell the female in heat and cannot go for a kiss. Generally speaking, male dogs have the ability to reproduce at 11 months of age and will instinctively mate.

⑤ Pay particular attention to days 11 and 12 after the red of the farcical dog, the period when the bitch is most likely to become pregnant, and unless you want the dog to become pregnant, take care to isolate any public dogs in the vicinity! In addition, owners should be aware that when a bitch is still in heat, she will still attract the approach of public dogs even though she has been implanted, so after implantation, avoid the approach of other male dogs at most


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Whether mating or not, owners should carefully observe their physiological patterns, such as the palm of their hand. Dogs are single estrus animals and do not come into heat repeatedly. Normal female dogs come into estrus 2 many times a year in the spring March–April and in the fall 9–10 once a month. Generally puppies mature sexually earlier generally puppies mature sexually earlier 8–12 and some as early as 6 months of age while large dogs mature sexually later. If you don’t want to give it a chance to mate, it only needs to be strictly supervised or neutered 2 times a year. After careful consideration, if you want him to have children, you should learn how to care for the dog, prepare all the necessary medications and supplies, free up enough time to care for him, and arrange a kind and reliable adoption for the dog in advance.

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