1. Immunization failure due to the vaccine itself:
1 Vaccines have a certain expiration date and cannot be used when they expire; they also fail when stored and transported at temperatures higher than 4°C.
2 Poor quality of vaccine or diluent distilled water and saline can also affect the immunization effect.
3 Insufficient antigenic content of the vaccine itself. For example, the toxicity of swine fever cell vaccine should not be less than 750 per head.RID live swine dengue vaccine contains not less than 500 million live bacteria per head G4T10 strain.
4 Other pathogenic microorganisms especially live vaccines are contaminated in the vaccine. For example, swine fever rabbit vaccine is produced from bovine testicular cells and usually requires the addition of calf serum during culture. If bovine viral diarrhea virus is added to calf serum, it can affect the immune effect of the vaccine and interfere with or inhibit the production of antibodies. Therefore, bovine viral diarrhea virus requires intermediate monitoring and finished product testing during the production of swine fever.
5 Inactivation of inactivated vaccines produced by strong strains is not complete.
6 Inappropriate configuration selection of immunization adjuvants.
2. Immunization failures caused by the pet itself: >
1 Immunization failures caused by the pet itself.
1 Severe nutritional deficiencies or low mass levels in pets can affect the integrity of the animal’s immune system, resulting in low immune function. When a pet is in an abnormal state of health, such as just recovering from an illness or long-term disease, the weaker the pet is due to weakness and low body immune function, the better the pet’s physical health, the better the response to vaccine immunization. In addition, the pet’s age, sex, and stress can affect the pet’s immune response, and differences between individuals can lead to different immune effects.
2 When pets are vaccinated, they may be in the incubation period of disease or have severe parasitic infections that inevitably lead to illness after vaccination, resulting in immunization failure.
3. Human-caused immunization failure:
1 Vaccine dose use: Too large a dose of vaccine inhibits antibody formation and results in immune tolerance or toxic reactions. A small dose will only produce IGM, not IgG, tolerance. Therefore, it should not be increased or decreased arbitrarily. Improper injection sites can also lead to failure. If you are not aware that your pet is on antibiotics, it can have a significant impact on the immune effect of the vaccine.
2 Practical immunization equipment: unsterilized syringes, needles, and drippers can reduce vaccine performance; unsterilized or contaminated diluents can cause vaccine impurity; and using chlorinated tap water to dilute vaccines can reduce vaccine activity and immune failure.
3 It is also important to administer vaccines in an appropriate manner: for example, intramuscular injection of subcutaneous vaccines can compromise the desired immune effect.
4 Using vaccines too long after dilution: Freeze-dried vaccines taken from a refrigerator at tens of degrees below zero should be left for a period of time to minimize the temperature difference with the diluent to avoid the death of weak microorganisms due to a sudden increase in temperature. Vaccine dilution should be used within 30 to 60 minutes. According to tests, there is a negative correlation between the time the vaccine is used after dilution and the rate of protection generated by immunity, and it is known that most vaccines diluted for more than 3 hours before vaccination have zero protection for the muscle.
5 Immunization procedures: The development of scientifically sound immunization procedures is an important part of implementing effective vaccination efforts and is important for pets to achieve and maintain high levels of immunity and good immune protection. Only a reasonable immunization program can make effective vaccines produce good immunization effect. The immunization program includes the type of vaccine, the age of first immunization, the number of vaccinations, and the interval between vaccinations. When developing the immunization program, the prevailing epidemic and disease status, the level of maternal antibodies and the quality of the vaccine should be taken into consideration. The level of maternal antibodies is the most important. If the immunization program is not designed properly, the first immunization is too early or too late, the interval between two immunizations is too long or too short, and the number of vaccinations is too many or too few, it will affect the immunization effect of the vaccine and lead to immunization failure.
4. Environmental immunization failure:
1 The immune function of the pet body is regulated to some extent by neural, humoral and endocrine regulation. In the event of a sudden change in climate too cold or too hot, high humidity, poor ventilation, noise, sudden environmental changes, sudden changes in feed and other stressors, adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion increases, which can significantly damage T lymphocytes, inhibit macrophages, and increase IgG catabolism. Therefore, the vaccination of pets in the stress sensitive period will weaken the immunity of dogs, resulting in immune failure.
2 After vaccination of the pet, the body produces different levels of immune response D?D cellular and humoral immunity both require certain nutrients. At this time, nutrient deficiencies or inadequacies, especially vitamins A, D, B, and E deficiencies of various trace elements and full-valued proteins can affect the rate or amount of immune antibody production, resulting in a delayed or reduced immune response, leading to immune failure.
3 Because some bacteria and viruses have variant strains, the vaccine itself provides less than 100% protection. Different vaccines require different transport and storage conditions. Freeze-dried vaccines typically require -15°C wet vaccines are typically stored frozen between 0-4°C oil emulsion vaccines are typically stored at about 10°C. Due to the influence of preservation, transportation and distribution, the actual expiration date often does not reach the specified time. You should try to choose the vaccine that has been shipped from the factory as recently as possible to ensure the immunization effect and to preserve the purchased vaccine according to the regulations. Users who do not meet the preservation conditions should now purchase and use vaccines.