I. Dog rabies



I. Dog rabies

[1 Define rabies]

Rabies is a disease of natural epidemiological origin caused by the rabies virus. The human body is bitten by an animal with rabies in its salivary glands or infected by saliva containing rabies virus. The clinical manifestations are a unique fear of water and wind, pharyngeal muscle spasms, and progressive paralysis, which eventually leads to death. Among these, hydrophobic symptoms are prominent, hence the disease is also known as hydrophobia hydrophobia.

2. Route of infection

Rabies virus is found primarily in the brain tissue and spinal cord of sick animals. The salivary glands and saliva of sick dogs also contain large amounts of virus and are excreted with saliva. The saliva of a sick dog can contain the virus 10-15 days before the appearance of clinical signs and for 6-7 months after the disappearance of symptoms. Therefore, when animals are bitten by diseased animals, they can become infected. Some healthy dogs and cats also contain viruses in their saliva. They can also become infected with diseases when they lick people or other animals or live with people. In addition, wolves, foxes, deer, bats, and many other wild animals can not only die after contracting the disease, but can also spread it more widely. For example, some species of bats, infected with rabies virus, often attack human and animal infections. Air contaminated with respiratory secretions and urine can also cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. Wild animals can be infected through the digestive tract, as it follows that rabies is not just a bite infection as was thought in the past.


1 Domestic dogs should be vaccinated regularly. At present, there are two types of rabies vaccines produced in China, namely rabies vaccine and rabies weak cell lyophilized vaccine. For rabies vaccine, the dosage for dogs is 3 ml for dogs weighing less than 4 kg and 5 ml for dogs weighing more than 4 kg. Animals bitten by diseased dogs should be vaccinated immediately. In this case, only one vaccination is not enough and two injections should be given at intervals of 3 to 5 months. Vaccinated dogs are given a six-month immunization period. Another type of vaccine is rabies weak cell lyophilized vaccine. Before use, dilute sterilized injection water or saline in the amount specified in the bottle label. After shaking well, 1 ml is injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly into each dog, regardless of size, to obtain a 1-year immunization period. Regardless of which vaccine a dog receives, there are generally no adverse reactions, and sometimes swelling in the local injection doctor|sorted study education network, which will soon disappear. However, both vaccines should not be administered to frail, near-term or postpartum bitches and puppies.

2 Strengthen quarantine. When unvaccinated dogs enter the country, in addition to strengthening isolation and observation, they must be supplemented with vaccines in a timely manner, otherwise they are prohibited from entering the country. For uncultivated wild dogs and other wild animals. Especially the wild dogs in the infected areas of this disease should be culled.

3 Sick dogs and sick animals that have developed clinical symptoms should be put down immediately and should not be treated. The carcass should be buried deeply and should not be consumed. Treat new bites in a timely manner. The effectiveness of treatment depends on the timing of treatment and the thoroughness of local treatment. In the case of bites, first localize the bleeding, then rinse the wound with soapy water to exclude the virus in the local tissues, then treat with 0. 1% mercury solution or alcohol, iodine, etc. If there is rabies immune serum, inject it at points around the wound the dosage is calculated as L5 ml per kg of body weight, preferably within 72 hours after the bite. If no serum is available, vaccination should be given promptly.

4 The bite should be quickly flushed with 20% soapy water, treated with 3% iodine, and promptly vaccinated against rabies once each on the first, third, seventh, fourteenth, and thirtieth days, and again on the fourth and fiftieth days.

[Ark Review]

When animals are bitten by sick animals, they can become infected. The saliva of some healthy dogs and cats can also contain viruses, and they can become infected when they lick people or other animals, or when they live with people. Air contaminated with respiratory secretions and urine can also cause respiratory infections in humans and animals. Wild animals may become infected through the digestive tract as they deprive themselves of diseased carcasses. It can be seen that rabies is not contracted only through bite as it was thought in the past.

So pet moms must be very careful to share a better life with their dogs while also being prepared for rabies caused by dog bites from other animals! >


II. Dog fever




II. Dog fever

1. Definition of canine distemper

Canine distemper is canine distemper virus CDV therefore, a highly contagious disease that affects mainly puppies up to 6 months of age and many animals in meat, can occur throughout the year, especially in winter and spring, and is endemic worldwide. Its symptoms are typical, mortality is high and the danger is great. Since the establishment of my veterinary station’s pet hospital, dogs suffering from canine distemper have accounted for about 37% of outpatient pet cases. Based on extensive clinical practice, we believe that cases of canine distemper should be diagnosed as soon as possible and treated with aggressive symptom support until there are no obvious gastrointestinal signs, pneumonia, or neurological signs to achieve a satisfactory outcome.

Canine distemper virus belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae measles virus RNA virus with an optimal pH of 7.0. It can be stored for a long time under lyophilization conditions; it is sensitive to organic solvents such as ultraviolet light, ether, and chloroform; it is sensitive to heat drying, and 3% caustic soda is effective for disinfection.


2 Symptoms and diagnosis

Biphasic fever type with ocular and nasal discharge is the initial symptom of canine distemper, specifically manifested by elevated body temperature, lacrimation and clear bright nasal fluid, along with loss of appetite in sick dogs, which should be distinguished from some similar diseases when diagnosing.

1 Different from the flu

In the early stages of the disease, symptoms are similar to those of a cold and can be easily misdiagnosed. Whether or not such cases are treated, sick dogs will receive 2 to 3 d in the absence of fever or hypothermia, mental appetite will improve, and owners will delay treatment because symptoms are not obvious. Many clinical observations have revealed that, unlike the clinical manifestations of colds: colds generally do not have tears, especially the distinctive upper and lower eyelids and eyelashes of canine distemper are soaked with tears [3]. As the disease progresses, body temperature rises again, eye and nasal discharges range from plasma to mucus pus, or cough, vomiting, and bloody stools, and the vast majority of affected dogs are depressed, have a poor appetite, or abolish, at which point the symptoms are completely different from those of a cold, and most clinically affected dogs are at this stage.

2 Distinguished from septic conjunctivitis

In the middle stage of the disease, mucopurulent discharge adheres to the upper and lower eyelids, eyelashes, and inner and outer corners of the eyes, which is markedly different from the copious discharge seen only in the inner corners of the eyes in common purulent conjunctivitis. Individual sick dogs have a temperature of upwards of 40°C and a normal mental appetite. The purpose of the dog owner taking the sick dog is to diagnose and treat the so-called eye disease. At this point, failure to perform temperature and upper respiratory examinations and to understand the ocular changes of canine distemper can be misdiagnosed.

3, nasal end changes and cough

Changes in the nasal end of canine distemper: the disease begins with a clear nasal discharge, followed by a purulent nasal fluid after bacterial infection. In the early and middle stages of the disease, the purulent nasal fluid of the sick dog decreases and manifests itself only as a little mucous nasal fluid in the nostrils or a layer of dry nasal crust adhering around the nostrils; the nasal end is dry due to fever, loss of appetite and mild dehydration. At this time, the condition is controlled to prevent further development of inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, otherwise there will be increased mucopurulent nasal fluid, severe blockage of the nostrils, difficulty in breathing, extreme depression, and dry keratinization of the nasal end due to dehydration.

Cough: The cough is not prominent throughout the course of the disease, and most dogs rarely exhibit a cough from the beginning of the disease through the development of severe bronchopneumonia and even the onset of neurologic symptoms.

4 Vomiting, constipation or diarrhea

Vomiting is more common in dogs with distemper, and the initial purulent discharge from the dog’s eyes is generally not taken seriously. Vomiting is also readily observed in sick dogs during diagnosis and treatment, especially when some antibiotics are overdosed or infused too rapidly.

Large and medium-sized dogs may initially pass small amounts of loose stools and asphaltic soft stools, but soon become constipated and do not pass stools for many days; puppies have predominantly diarrhea, with stools mixed with mucus, blood, and air bubbles, when the distinction from small viral enteritis should be noted. First of all, distemper vomiting is not as frequent and stubborn as canine microviral enteritis. Distemper dogs vomit less after drinking water, while small viral enteritis dogs are not only thirsty, but often vomit immediately after drinking water; secondly, distemper dogs have frequent and numerous bloody stools in the form of tomato juice. Canine microviral enteritis dogs often die from dehydration caused by frequent and persistent vomiting and severe hemorrhagic diarrhea, whereas distemper dogs tend to die from progressive failure caused by severe bronchial encephalitis or central nervous system infection. In addition, the biphasic fever of canine distemper with ocular and nasal discharge and hyperkeratosis of the nasal and foot pads can be different from that of microviral enteritis.

5 Muscle twitching or hindquarters paralysis

Dogs with distemper exhibit multiple forms of muscle twitching and neurologic signs in both hindlimbs or the entire hindquarters, mostly about 10 d or half a month after onset, and also seen in a few sick dogs soon after the onset of the disease. According to clinical observation, when a sick dog has nonsuppurative encephalitis, it mostly shows convulsions in different forms; some sick dogs have convulsions ranging from localized twitching of the lips, eyelids, or ear roots to biting muscle tremors, empty chewing, drooling, and continuous twitching of one or both hind limbs; while puppies commonly have seizures such as foot spinning and collisions. Some sick dogs have repeated trembling and convulsions of the whole body muscles, and in severe cases run, turn, collide, ataxia, suddenly fall to the ground, foaming at the mouth, teeth closing, and seizures. As the disease progresses, the duration of the convulsions lengthens seconds to minutes and the number of convulsions increases several times a day to dozens of times a day. A few dogs with seizures also return to normal and are able to eat and drink. This state may persist for a long time, but typical symptoms will eventually appear as the condition worsens and the convulsions become more severe.

6 Hypogastric purulent rash and hyperkeratosis of the foot pad

The two manifestations of canine distemper occur primarily in puppies a few months old and are rarely seen in adult dogs over 1 year of age. A purulent abdominal rash is more prominent in older puppies, whereas foot pad keratosis is more common in younger puppies.


3. Treatment and preventive measures



Shappy Dog

3. Treatment and preventive measures

1. Isolation of sick dogs

If an outbreak is detected, the sick dog should be isolated immediately, the dead dog carcass should be buried deeply or burned, and the contaminated environment, grounds, kennels, and appliances must be thoroughly disinfected with 3% formalin, 3% sodium hydroxide, or 5% petrolatum solution [1]. Emergency inoculation of non-symptomatic dogs of the same group and other threatened susceptible dogs.

2. Early anti-distemper high immunity serum

Sick dogs and or canine pentameric high immunity serum or recovered dogs serum whole blood, intramuscularly or subcutaneously. The amount of serum depends on the disease and the size of the dog, usually using 5-10 mL 3-5 times/d consecutively [4] along with immunoglobulins, antiviral and antibacterial drugs, corticosteroids, immune boosters, vitamins and symptomatic supportive therapy e.g., fluids, antipyretic, sedative, analgesic, astringent and circulatory stimulants.

Given good care, early-stage sick dogs can have a satisfactory outcome.

3. Regular vaccinations

Regular vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control canine distemper. Currently, the canine distemper vaccine produced in China is a cell culture weak vaccine [5]. To improve the immunization effect, the vaccination should be given according to the prescribed immunization procedure: first immunization for 6-week-old puppies, 2 immunizations for 8 to 9 weeks of age, and 6 vaccinations for dogs. The third immunization 10~13 weeks of age, followed by 6 vaccinations for dogs. 16~17 weeks of age immunization, 7 vaccinations for dogs, and once a year immunization, 7 vaccinations for dogs.

Given the time required after vaccination 7 to 10d only then can a good immunization effect be produced. Currently, the prevalence of canine distemper is more prevalent. Some dogs are infected with canine distemper virus prior to immunization but do not show clinical signs. They can still stimulate clinical signs under the influence of some stress factors changes in living conditions, long distance transportation, etc., which is one of the important reasons for diseases such as canine distemper in some dogs after immunization. In order to improve the immunization effect and reduce the infection rate, when you buy a puppy, it is better to inject the puppy with 4~5mL of the joint high immunity serum first, and then inject it again a week later, and then vaccinate it two weeks later according to the above immunization procedure, which is safe and reliable and can reduce the morbidity.

[Ark Review]

Canine distemper is a common, high-touch viral infection caused primarily by respiratory tract infection. It has a high lethality rate and is very difficult to treat in the late stages of the disease. Current treatment with serum antibodies is generally effective early in the course of the disease and very poor once you reach the middle and late stages of the disease. Therefore, I do not think you need to use serum at this time and use high doses of antibiotics, sedatives and antivirals. In addition, intensive care is needed. Use antibiotic eye drops for the eyes and some antibiotics to moisten the nasal passages.

Canine distemper canine distemper is one of the most damaging infectious diseases in the dog breeding industry, with high morbidity and mortality. In order to reduce economic losses, how to take preventive measures to exhaust dogs and reduce economic losses is a difficult problem that plagues the development of dog breeding industry. The study of canine distemper pathogens and epidemic characteristics, symptoms and diagnosis is of great importance for treatment and prevention. Canine distemper must be treated by a doctor as soon as possible. If the viral infection is unfortunate, immune serum and antimicrobial drugs can completely cure the disease in its early stages. Whether hospitalized or treated at home, a warm and dry environment needs to be prepared for it. Most importantly, you should take your dog for vaccinations while still a puppy, avoid going outside during an epidemic, and never come into contact with sick dogs and their excrement and vomit.


Infectious hepatitis in dogs




Infectious hepatitis in dogs

[1. Definition]

Infectious hepatitis is an acute, highly contagious septicemic infection caused by canine type I adenovirus. It is characterized by circulatory disturbances, central hepatic lobule necrosis, and nuclear endothelial cell inclusions in the liver parenchyma and endothelium. Yamato fox is susceptible, as are mountain dogs, raccoons, and black bears. It can also infect humans, but does not cause clinical signs.

2 Infectious

Pathogenic canine infectious hepatitis virus belongs to the adenovirus family, mammalian adenovirus is a member of only one antigenic type. The virus has a strong resistance, can survive on contaminants for 10 days ~ 14 days can survive at room temperature for 10 weeks ~ 16 weeks, still remain infectious after 30 minutes at 56 ℃, 60 ℃ for 3 minutes ~ kill takes 5 minutes. Resistant to ether, chloroform and other lipid solvents. Phenol, tincture of iodine and caustic soda are commonly used as effective disinfectants.

Epidemiology is widespread and can occur year-round, regardless of age or sex, but is more common in puppies under 1 year of age, especially at 2 months of age ~3 months when they are most susceptible. The incidence of the disease is high, with mortality rates ranging from 25% to 40%. Healed dogs can receive lifelong immunity, but still carry the virus and are detoxified from urine for as long as 6 months to 9 months. Sick and recovered dogs are the main source of infection for the disease. The virus excretes vomit, saliva, feces, urine and other secretions and feces, contaminating food, drinking water, appliances and the surrounding environment. Healthy dogs are infected through the digestive tract and placenta.

3 Case Study

The incubation period for clinical symptoms is usually 3 days ~ 5 days after symptom onset, with the most acute cases often dying within 12 hours ~ 24 hours. The duration of illness in most cases is 10 to 15 days. Acute cases initially sick dogs are afraid of cold, mental appetite, body temperature rises 40 ℃ ~ 41 ℃, lasting 1 day ~ 2 days after the drop to room temperature, 4 days after the drop to room temperature ~ five days after the rise again. At this time, the sick dog lost appetite, thirsty and drinkable, common vomiting, diarrhea, eyes and nose flowing pulpy mucous discharge, abdominal pain and moaning. The oral mucosa was congested and bright red, the tonsils were inflamed, the submandibular lymph nodes were obviously enlarged, the liver area was painful and enlarged, and the sick dog moaned in pain. The left anterior abdomen was palpated and the spleen was enlarged. The symptoms were mild in subacute cases. The body temperature of the sick dog was slightly elevated, a few had edema in the lower abdomen of the head and neck, an increased heartbeat and rapid respiration. Recovery is temporary clouding of the cornea uveitis in one or both eyes in about 15% to 20% of affected dogs, often referred to as hepatitis blue eye, mostly temporary, with a few causing permanent damage or even blindness. Most recover or die within 2 weeks. The mortality rate in puppies is about 20%. Most adult dogs can tolerate it.

The pathological changes dissected lesions are mainly systemic septic changes with common subcutaneous edema and hemorrhagic spots of different sizes seen on the parenchyma, plasma membrane, and mucosa. Peritoneal fluid accumulation, ascites hemorrhagic. The liver is enlarged in appearance with blunted margins. The gallbladder was enlarged and filled with bile. The gallbladder wall was highly edematous, thickened and hemorrhagic with a blackish-red color as the characteristic lesion. The kidneys were enlarged and the mesenteric lymph nodes were hemorrhagic.

Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, epidemiology, and pathological changes, and because the disease is often co-infected with canine distemper, careful clinical diagnosis is required. The diagnosis must be confirmed by virus isolation and serological diagnosis. Artificially infected foxes and dogs develop the disease, but cannot make ferrets develop it.

4. Prevention and control measures

1 Vaccination: Regular vaccination of the dog can be effective in preventing this disease. Puppies are first immunized at 45 days of age, with boosters at 60 and 75 days of age. Vaccinations are given every six months for the second year, one bottle at a time for each dog, regardless of size. The domestic canine quintuple vaccine has good immunity against canine microvirus, rabies, canine infectious hepatitis and canine parainfluenza, especially canine infectious hepatitis and canine microvirus. Experts estimate that the immunization rate of canine vaccines is less than 10%, mainly because of the low awareness of canine vaccination. Therefore, expanding canine vaccination coverage and increasing immunization density is the key to controlling this disease.

2Treatment of sick dogs:The mortality rate of puppies with this disease is high, and there are no specific drugs to treat it, so comprehensive treatment is usually used. In the early stages of the disease, high immunity serum or whole blood, serum or plasma of recovered dogs or gammaglobulin can inhibit the reproduction and spread of the virus, injected subcutaneously once every other day, used 2~3 times consecutively; 150ml of 5% glucose saline with Vc250mg, VBl2150mg~200mg, coenzyme A1 branch, ATP1.inosine1, injected intravenously, once a day. Correct water and electrolyte disorders; use 30% florfenicol 1m1, compound astragalus polysaccharide 2ml, intramuscular injection, once a day, to control concurrent and secondary infections, hepatic tylenol 2 tablets ~ three tablets orally, three times a day, to protect the liver and bile.

[Ark Review]

We should all know that once an epidemic occurs, isolation measures should be strictly enforced to avoid direct and indirect contact between sick dogs and healthy dogs, and sick dogs should be burned and buried deeply. 3% sodium hydroxide solution is used for disinfection of kennels, sites and feeding utensils. Newly introduced dogs should be isolated and observed for at least 15 days. Emergency immunization of healthy dogs with pentavalent or hexavalent vaccines, or injection of adult dog serum into puppies under 1 year of age subcutaneously once a week for 3 ml~5 ml during the epidemic of this disease can effectively control the epidemic. 6

IV. Common parasitic diseases in dogs</span



Ancient Shepherd Dogs

IV. Common parasitic diseases in dogs

1 Ascariasis

Ascariasis is a common parasitic disease in dogs and cats, often causing stunting and slow growth in dogs and cats, especially in young animals, and can lead to death in severe cases. The body of the worm varies from about 5 to 10 cm. Roundworms often cause increased abdominal girth or bloating, pale mucous membranes, gradual wasting, loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting, and diarrhea followed by constipation in young animals. Sick dogs and cats are bored with activity, growth and development are impaired, and coughing symptoms occasionally appear. When an adult female dog infected with the disease becomes pregnant, the larvae are infected through the placenta or breast milk. Dogs are born with adult worms in the small intestine from 23 to 40.

Adult dogs can contract this disease by eating fecal-contaminated food or stealing sick mice. Ascaris is a thicker parasite in dogs and cats. When the infection is severe, roundworms often collect in a mass in the intestine, causing the intestine to become blocked, twisted, folded, or even perforated. Roundworms are parasitic in the intestine and can also travel with the bloodstream to the lungs. They then travel from the lungs upstream to the trachea, where they may be swallowed back into the esophagus after reaching the throat, and then parasitize the intestine to complete 1 growth cycle. The larvae parasitized in the throat cause coughing symptoms. The symptoms caused by roundworm infection are more serious, so diagnosis is important. Fecal examinations are performed starting at 1 month of age and are performed regularly.

Adult dogs should have their feces checked at least 2 times a year spring and fall. If you find signs of digestive disease, be sure to do a fecal exam to check and rule out intestinal parasites for infection. Collect fresh feces, place in a clean vial and send to the vet for examination. Once diagnosed, medication can completely cure it. Pay attention to environmental hygiene, keep food and troughs clean, clean feces in a timely manner, pile up fermentation, and deworm dogs and cats regularly.

2 Hookworm disease

Hookworms are smaller intestinal parasites that dogs can easily become infected with. Hookworms are parasites with teeth on their heads that can anchor themselves to the wall of the small intestine and suck blood. Dogs are most often infected with hookworms by eating hookworm-containing larvae and egg droppings; the larvae invade the skin and are transmitted to puppies through breast milk or the placenta. This disease occurs mainly in the summer. The usual clinical presentation is bloody diarrhea or blood in the feces, which is black and pitchy. Dogs suffering from weight loss, weakness, and dehydration.

Some dogs show signs of mild diarrhea, weakness, and anemia. Fetal infection and colostrum infection of dogs with hookworms at 3 weeks of age can cause severe anemia and excessive blood loss leading to rapid death of the puppy. Adult dogs generally show no obvious signs of infection. Diarrhea and weight loss are common and are often the source of infection in puppies.

The final diagnosis of the disease is made through clinical observation of symptoms combined with fecal examination. Pet hospitals only require a small amount of fresh feces for general examination. The disease can be transmitted to humans, so it is important to protect yourself. After the disease is found, you should go to the pet hospital as soon as possible, in addition to the use of anthelmintic drugs, but also with symptomatic treatment. Keep the kennel dry and clean up the feces in a timely manner. Borates can be used on the kennel floor 2 kg for 10 m2 to kill the larvae.

[3. Tapeworm disease]

Tapeworms are parasitic in the small intestine of dogs, cats, and other animals. The canine compound tapeworm is mostly transmitted by fleas. When dogs and cats lick their fur, they eat fleas with tapeworm eggs or eat abnormal meat that has not been harmlessly treated. The adult tapeworm is 10-50 cm long and has an elongated body consisting of many segmented pieces. Some fragments break off and are excreted in the feces; these fragments are milky white and are often attached to the fur of the animal’s anus. The nodal fragments swim and crawl rapidly near the animal’s anus, causing itching and causing the sick animal to run back and forth across the floor.

1 Diagnostic grain-sized nodule found on pet pads or anal fur or feces. Tapeworm infection rarely causes obvious clinical signs. Sometimes sick animals have decreased body condition despite good appetite. The disease can be completely cured and the adult worms killed. After healing, no nodules can be found in the feces. An effective way to prevent canine tapeworm disease is to kill fleas and reduce contact between pets and intermediate hosts rabbits and rodents.

4. Trichinellosis

Because the entire insect looks like a lamb’s whip, also called a whipworm, it is parasitic in the large intestine and cecum of dogs. Trichuris fowleri often infects dogs and causes mainly diarrheal symptoms in dogs. Cats are rarely infected with Trichinella and usually have no obvious clinical signs. Dogs of all ages are susceptible, and the severity of clinical signs depends on the number of large intestine and cecum. Symptoms range from mild diarrhea to rectal hemorrhage. Most sick dogs have mucous diarrhea. Diagnosis of Trichinella relies primarily on fecal microscopy. Drugs are effective in treating trichinella infections, but multiple treatment regimens are used to deworm. Trichuris nematodes in feces are difficult to kill. Dogs can also be reinfected if they are re-exposed to feces. Therefore, proper kennel hygiene and timely removal of feces are necessary.

[Ark Review]

Parasitism is a common wasting disease in dogs and cats, and can even lead to death. There is a certain incubation period, and clinical signs rarely appear at the beginning of the disease, which is often ignored by breeders.

Some dogs have mild diarrhea, weakness, and signs of anemia. Puppies as young as 3 weeks of age at birth can cause severe anemia and excessive blood loss, leading to rapid puppy death. Adult dogs generally show no obvious signs of infection, common diarrhea and weight loss,

and it is usually the source of infection in puppies. Here are some common parasitic diseases in dogs and cats for your reference. We hope to detect the disease and seek medical attention as soon as possible.

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